Human Evolution & Development
This research explores the interaction between human evolution and the process of economic development, advancing the hypothesis that the forces of natural selection played a significant role in the evolution of the world economy from stagnation to growth. The theory suggests that the Malthusian pressures have acted as the key determinant of population size and conceivably, via natural selection, have shaped the composition of the population as well. Lineages of individuals whose traits were complementary to the economic environment generated higher levels of income, and thus a larger number of surviving offspring and the gradual increase in the representation of their traits in the population contributed to the process of development and the takeoff from stagnation to growth.
The Agricultural Revolution and the establishment of individual, rather than tribal, property rights expedited the selection process and gradually increased the representation of traits that were complementary to the growth process (e.g., entrepreneurial spirit, higher life expectancy, preference for child quality). It triggered a positive feedback between technological progress and education and ultimately brought about the Industrial Revolution and a period of sustained economic growth.
Subjecting hypothetical evolutionary processes to the scrutiny of evolutionary growth models, this body of research has identied several traits that may have been subjected to positive selection during the Malthusian era due to their conduciveness to human capital formation and economic development. In particular, this research advances the hypothesis that during the Malthusian epoch, natural selection brought about a gradual increase in the prevalence of traits associated with predisposition towards offspring quality (Galor and Moav, QJE 2002). The effect of this evolutionary process on investment in human capital stimulated technological progress and contributed to the reinforcing interaction between investment in human capital and technological progress that triggered the demographic transition and brought about a state of sustained economic growth.
Additional studies have highlighted the selection of resistance to infectious diseases (Galor and Moav, 2007), human body size (Lagerlof, 2007), predisposition towards entrepreneurial spirit (Galor and Michalopoulos, JET 2012), time preference (Galor and Ozak, AER forthcoming), lactase persistence (Cook, 2014), and conspicuous consumption (Collins, Baer and Weber, 2015).